Sunday, January 10, 2010

Blood Diseases and Disorders

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  • AIDS (Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome)

    AIDS is caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). By killing or damaging cells of the body's immune system, HIV progressively destroys the body's ability to fight infections and certain cancers. » read more..

  • Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease (CJD)

    A degenerative and fatal nervous system disorder. Affected individuals can remain asymptomatic for decades after infection and then progress rapidly to dementia, severe loss of coordination and death. » read more..

  • Cytomegalovirus (CMV) Infection

    Cytomegalovirus, or CMV, is found universally throughout all geographic locations and socioeconomic groups, and infects. » read more..

  • Leptospirosis

    Leptospirosis is a bacterial zoonosis disease that affects humans and animals. It is caused by bacteria of the genus Leptospira » read more..

  • Immune Thrombocytopenic Purpura (ITP)

    Immune thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) is an autoimmune disease or a disorder of the blood, which occurs when antibodies from the immune system attack the body’s platelets, which are the cells that help the blood to clot. » read more..

  • Graft Versus Host Disease (GVHD)

    Graft versus host disease (GVHD) is the term used when this new immune system attacks your body. Your donor's cells see your body as "foreign" and attack it–causing damage » read more..

  • Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE)

    Lupus is one of many disorders of the immune system known as autoimmune diseases. In autoimmune diseases, the immune system turns against parts of the body it is designed to protect. This leads to inflammation and damage to various body tissues. » read more..

  • Malaria

    Approximately 300 million people worldwide are affected by malaria and between 1 and 1.5 million people die from it every year. » read more..

  • Hemophilia

    Hemophilia is the oldest known hereditary bleeding disorder. There are two types of hemophilia, A and B (Christmas Disease). » read more..

  • Benign White Cell Disorders: Leukocytosis

    Leukocytosis is an increased number of leukocytes, or white blood cells (WBCs) above the normal range for age and sex, in the blood » read more..

  • Macroglobulinemia of Waldenstrom(WM) - Plasma Cell Disorders

    Macroglobulinemia of Waldenstrom(WM) is a cancer of the B lymphocytes/ B-cells (a type of white blood cell). Such cancer is called lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma. » read more..

  • Anemia

    Anemia is a common blood disorder, which is caused when there is a drop in hemoglobin or hematocrit in the blood. » read more..

  • Thrombocythemia

    Thrombocythemia is a myeloproliferative blood disorder. » read more..

  • Myelofibrosis

    Myelofibrosis is a disorder in which fibrous tissue replaces the blood-producing cells in the bone marrow, resulting in abnormally shaped red blood cells, anemia, and an enlarged spleen. » read more..

  • Diabetes

    Diabetes is a disorder of metabolism—the way our bodies use digested food for growth and energy. Most of the food we eat is broken down into glucose, the form of sugar in the blood. Glucose is the main source of fuel for the body.» read more..

  • Blood cholesterol

    Blood cholesterol narrows the arteries and can slow down or block Blood flow to the heart. With less Blood, the heart gets less oxygen. With not enough oxygen to the heart, there may be chest pain, heart attack, or even death » read more..

  • Lymphatic filariasis

    Lymphatic filariasis is a blood disease caused by nematode worms circulating in the bloodstream of infected persons. » read more..

  • Hemochromatosis

    A most often hereditary Blood disorder that causes body tissue to absorb and store too much iron. » read more..

  • High Blood Pressure

    The most common risk factor for heart and kidney diseases and stroke. High Blood pressure, or hypertension, is defined in an adult as a systolic pressure (top number) of 140 mm Hg or higher and/or a diastolic pressure (bottom number) of 90 mm Hg or higher. » read more..

  • Leukemia

    Leukemia is cancer of the blood cells, usually the white blood cells. Leukemic cells look different than normal cells and do not function properly. » read more..

  • Polycythemia

    Polycythemia is a disorder of having more red cells and there is also a slow, steady buildup of white cells and platelets. Blood volume also increases putting the patient at a higher risk of Blood clots and stroke. » read more..

  • Sepsis

    Sepsis is an overwhelming and life-threatening bacterial infection of the Blood and body organs caused by bacteria.Sepsis infection can lead to a form of shock, known as septic shock. » read more..

  • Sickle cell disease

    A hereditary Blood disease resulting from a single amino acid action of the red Blood cells. Generally have no symptoms ,Live normal lives ,Can pass the sickle cell gene on to their children. » read more..

  • Thalassemia

    A group of fatal genetic Blood disorders. The WHO recognizes Thalassemia as the most prevalent inherited genetic Blood disorder in the world. » read more..

  • Thrombosis

    When the platelets try to patch up an injury within a small Blood vessel and completely plug it up instead. This plug obstructs the normal flow of Blood and can result in a heart attack or stroke. » read more..

  • Hepatitis

    Hepatitis is a gastroenterological disease, featuring inflammation of the liver. The clinical signs and prognosis, as well as the therapy, depend on the cause. » read more..

  • Leishmaniasis

    Leishmaniasis is a disease caused by parasites that belong to the genus Leishmania and is transmitted by the bite of certain species of sandfly » read more..

  • Lyme disease

    Lyme disease is associated with the bite of the eastern deer tick, and can cause an illness that affects many systems within the body. » read more..

  • Chagas Disease

    This disease, properly named Chagas' Disease, is caused by a parasite that infects an estimated 18 million people worldwide, causing death from heart and digestive problems » read more..

  • Babesiosis

    Babesiosis is a rare malaria-like parasitic disease caused by protozoan parasites of the genus Babesia, which belongs to the phylum Apicomplexa. » read more..

  • Toxoplasmosis

    Toxoplasmosis is an infection caused by a microscopic parasite that can live inside the cells of humans and animals, especially cats and farm animals. » read more..

  • West Nile Virus

    West Nile virus is an infectious disease that made its first appearance in the United States in 1999. The microbe that causes the infection belongs to a group of disease-causing viruses known as flaviviruses, which are usually spread by ticks or mosquitoes. » read more..

  • Von Willebrand disease

    Von Willebrand disease, or vWD, is an inherited bleeding disorder - meaning it's passed from parent to child through genes - that affects the blood's ability to clot properly. It takes its name from Dr. Erik von Willebrand, who first described the condition in 1926 » read more..

  • Chikungunya Fever

    Chikungunya fever is a viral disease transmitted to humans by the bite of infected mosquitoes(Aedes aegypti (the yellow fever mosquito)). Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a member of the genus Alphavirus, in the family Togaviridae. » read more..

Swine Flu

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What is the swine flu?

The swine influenza A (H1N1) virus that has infected humans in the U.S. and Mexico is a novel influenza A virus that has not previously been identified in North America. This virus is resistant to the antiviral medications amantadine (Symmetrel) and rimantadine (Flumadine), but is sensitive to oseltamivir (Tamiflu) and zanamivir (Relenza). Investigations of these cases suggest that on-going human-to-human swine influenza A (H1N1) virus is occurring.

What are the symptoms of swine flu?

Although uncomplicated influenza-like illness (fever, cough or sore throat) has been reported in many cases, mild respiratory illness (nasal congestion, rhinorrhea) without fever and occasional severe disease also has been reported. Other symptoms reported with swine influenza A virus infection include vomiting, diarrhea, myalgia, headache, chills, fatigue, and dyspnea. Conjunctivitis is rare, but has been reported. Severe disease (pneumonia, respiratory failure) and fatal outcomes have been reported with swine influenza A virus infection. The potential for exacerbation of underlying chronic medical conditions or invasive bacterial infection with swine influenza A virus infection should be considered.

How can swine (H1N1) flu be prevented?

The best way to prevent swine flu would be the same best way to prevent other influenza infections, and that is vaccination. When a safe vaccine is developed (projected to happen in a few months), people should get vaccinated if the disease is still causing infections. The CDC says that a good way to prevent any flu disease is to avoid exposure to the virus; this is done by frequent hand washing, not touching your hands to your face (especially the nose and mouth), and avoiding any close proximity to or touching any person that may have flu symptoms. Since the virus can remain viable and infectious for about 48 hours on many surfaces, good hygiene and cleaning with soap and water or alcohol-based hand disinfectants are also recommended. Some physicians say face masks may help prevent getting airborne flu viruses (for example, from a cough or sneeze), but others think the better use for masks would be on those people who have symptoms and sneeze or cough. The use of Tamiflu or Relenza may help prevent the flu if taken before symptoms develop or reduce symptoms if taken within about 48 hours after symptoms develop. However, taking these drugs is not routinely recommended for prevention because investigators suggest that as occurs with most drugs, flu strains will develop resistance to these medications. Your doctor should be consulted before these drugs are prescribed.

In general, preventive measures to prevent the spread of flu are often undertaken by those people who have symptoms. Symptomatic people should stay at home, avoid crowds, and take off from work or school until the disease improves or medical help is sought. Sneezing, coughing, and nasal secretions need to be kept away from other people; simply using tissues and disposing of them will help others. Quarantining patients is usually not warranted, but such measures depend on the severity of the disease.

Components of Blood

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Summary Chart of Blood Components

ComponentMajor IndicationsAction
Whole Blood Symptomatic anemia with large volume deficit Restoration of oxygen - Carrying capacity, restoration of blood volume
Red Blood Cells Symptomatic anemia with large volume deficit Restoration of oxygen - Carrying capacity, restoration of blood volume
Red Blood Cells, Leukocytes (white blood cells) removed Symptomatic anemia, febrile reactions from leukocyte antibodies Restoration of oxygen - Carrying capacity
Red Blood Cells, Adenine-Saline added Symptomatic anemia with volume deficit Restoration of oxygen - Carrying capacity
Fresh Frozen Plasma Deficit of labile and stable plasma coagulations factors Source of labile and no labile plasma factors
Liquid Plasma and Plasma Deficit of stable coagulation factors Source of labile and non-labile factors
Cryo-Precipitated AHF Hemophilia A, von Will brand's Disease, Hypofibrino-genemia Factor XIII deficiency Provides Factor VIII, fibrinogen, vWF, and Factor XIII
Platelets: Platelets, Pheresis Bleeding from Thrombo Cytopenia or platelet function Improves hemostasis
Granulocytes Pheresis (white blood cells) Neutropenia with infection Provides Granulo cytes

Preparing for Donation

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What to Expect from a Typical Whole Blood Donation

Preparation for giving blood

Please be sure to eat at your regular mealtime and drink plenty of fluids. We recommend that you not take aspirin, or products containing aspirin, for at least 72 hours before you are donating blood.

The Procedure

Before donating blood some basic information such as your name, address and age is recorded. A medical checkup is done, where your pulse, blood pressure and temperature is also checked. Blood is analyzed for hemoglobin content.

The procedure is done by a skilled, specially trained technician and takes seven to ten minutes. There may be a little sting when the needle is inserted, but there should be no pain during the donation. The materials, including the needle used for your donation, should be new, sterile, disposable and used only once by you for your blood donation.

You should rest a bit after the donation and have some refreshments.

After Donating Blood

You can resume full activity as long as you feel well. Just avoid lifting, pushing or picking up heavy objects for at least four or five hours after giving blood. After donating, drink lots of fluids for the next 48 hours.

Your body replaces blood volume or plasma within 24 hours. Red cells need about four to eight weeks for complete replacement. You can donate whole blood every 90 days and you can also donate specific life–saving blood components besides whole blood.

After donation, your blood will be tested for blood type, hepatitis, HIV (the AIDS virus), HTLV (Human T-cell Lymphotropic Virus), and Syphilis. Then it can be used either as whole blood for one patient or, after separation into components, to help several patients.

Know Your Blood Group

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Blood is grouped into four types: A, B, AB, and O.
Each Type is also classified by an Rh factor: Either positive (+) or negative (-).

When a blood transfusion is necessary, donor and patient blood must be compatible. If not, the patient's body will react to the incompatible donor cells, leading to complications, maybe even death. Your ABO blood grouping and Rh factor are inherited from your parents.

Following are the Blood Groups
  • O Positive
  • O Negative
  • A Positive
  • A Negative
  • B Positive
  • B Negative
  • AB Positive
  • AB Negative

Blood Group O (Universal Donor)

O Negative

As an O negative donor, we have a great need for your whole blood donations. This type is uncommon – only 6 percent of the population is O negative. O negative patients should receive blood only from O negative donors. People with every other blood type can safely be transfused with O negative blood. This is usually done in an extreme emergency, before their own blood types can be determined.

O Positive

As an O positive whole donor, it is of great help in donation. This type is the most common - nearly 40 percent of the population is O positive. It is in greatest demand.

Licensed Blood Banks

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1Blood Bank,A.I.I.M.S New Delhi-110029
2Blood Bank,Armed Forces Transfusion Centre Contonment,New Delhi-110010
3Blood Bank,C.N. Centre,A.I.I.M.S. New Delhi-110029
4Blood Bank, Dr.R.M.L. Hospital New Delhi-110001
5Blood Bank E.S.I. Hospital New Delhi-110015
6Blood Bank, Northern Railway Centre Basant Lane, New Delhi
7Blood Bank ,Safdajang Hospital New Delhi-110029
8Blood Bank, Sucheta Kriplani Hospital New Delhi-110001
(B). Blood Banks Under Government of Delhi :
9Blood Bank,D.D.U. Hospital Hari Nagar, New Delhi-110069
10Blood Bank,G.B. Pant Hospital New Delhi-110002
11Blood Bank,G.T.B. Hospital Shahdra,Delhi-110029
12Blood Bank, L.N.J.P. Hospital New Delhi-110002
13Blood Bank Sushrut Trauma Centre Metcalf House, Delhi-110054
14Blood Bank, Sanjay Gandhi Memorial Hospital, Mangolpuri,Delhi-110083
15Blood Bank, Saheb ambedkar Hospital Sector-6,Rohini, Delhi
16Dr. Hedgewar Arogya Sansthan, F-18, Kakardooma, Shahadara Delhi-32
(C). Blood Banks Under Muncipal Corporation of Delhi :
17Blood Bank, Hindu Rao Hospital Delhi-110007
18Blood Bank, Kasturba Hospital Daryaganj, New Delhi-110002
19Blood Bank, Swami Dayanand Hospital Delhi-110095
(D). Blood Banks Under Voluntary Organisation :
20Blood Bank,Indian Red Cross Society New Delhi
21Rotary Blood Bank,56-57,Tuglaguabad, Institutional Area, Mehrauli Badarpur Road, New Delhi
22Loins Blood Bank AK-100, Shalimar Bagh,New Delhi-88
(E). Registration Trust Operator Blood Bank:
23Emergency Blood Bank 4858/2a, Ansari Road, Darayaganj,New Delhi-02
24Blood Bank Organisation 11/6-B, Pusa Road,New Delhi-110008
(F).Blood Banks Under Private Hospitals:
25Blood Bank Jaipur Golden Hospital 2, Institutional Area ,Rohini,New Delhi-110085
26Blood Bank,Batra Hospital New Delhi-110062
27Blood Bank,Dharmashila Cancer Hospital Vasundra Enclave,Delhi-110096
28 Blood Bank, Escort Heart Institute Okhla, New Delhi-110044
29Blood Bank Ganga Ram Hospital New Delhi-110060
30Blood Bank, Holy Family Hospital Okhla,New Delhi-110020
31Blood Bank ,Mata Chanan Devi Hospital A-2D,Janak Puri,New Delhi-110058
32Blood Bank, Mool chand Hospital Lajpat Nagar,New Delhi-110024
33Blood Bank, National Heart Institute East of Kailash,New Delhi-110065
34Blood Bank, Rajiv Gandhi Cancer Hospital Rohini,Delhi-110085
35Blood Bank,Indra Parstha Medical Corporation Sarita Vihar,New Delhi-110085
36Blood Bank, St. Stephens Hospital Delhi-110054
37Blood Bank, Sundar Lal Jain Hospital Ashok Vihar,Delhi-110052
38Pushpawati Singhania Research Inst. for Liver Renal & Digestive, Press Enclave Marg, Shaikh Sarai,New Delhi-17
39Blood Bank, Maharaja Aagrasen Hospital Punjabi Bagh,New Delhi-110026
40Blood Bank, Delhi Heart & Lungs Institute, 3MM-11,Ansari Road,Daryaganj,New Delhi-02
41Brahm Shakti Hospital & Research Centre, U-1/78, Budh Vihar,New Delhi-110041
42Shri Balaji Action Medical Institure FC-34,A/4, Paschim Vihar,New Delhi-63
43Max Devki Devi, Heart & Vascular Institute,(A Unit Of Devki Devi foundation Institute), 2,Press Enclave,Saket,New Delhi-110017
44Max Balaji Hospital(Balaji Medical and Diagnostic Centre) 108 A,Indraprastha Extn., Samachar Apartment,Patparganj,New Delhi-110017
45Sant Parmanand Hospital,(A Unit of Sant Parmanand Blind Relief Mission),Blood Bank, Sucheta Kriplani Hospital 18,Sham Nath Marg,Civil Lines,Delhi-54
46Blood Bank,Saroj Hospital & Heart Institute, Sector -14 Rohini,Madhuban Chowk,New Delhi-110085
47Fortis Flt. Lt. Rajan Dhall Hospital Sector-B, Pkt.1,Aruna Asaf Ali Marg, Vasant Kunj,New Delhi-110017
(G).Private Blood Banks :
48Bajaj Blood Bank,I-C/3, Guru Gobind Singh Marg, New Rohtak Road,New Delhi-110005
49Blood Bank,Central Polyclinic 03, Gagan Vihar, Delhi
50Blood Organisation 36, Vijay Block, Laxmi Nagar,Delhi-110092
51Central Ployclinic Blood Bank 11-J/36, Lajpat Nagar,New Delhi-110024
52Sunil Blood Bank 806, Arjun Nagar,Kotla Mubarakpur,New Delhi-110003
53White Cross Blood Bank, A-60,East Of Kailash, New Delhi-110065

Blood facts

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  • Blood fights against infection and helps heal wounds, keeping you healthy.
  • Blood makes up about 7% of your body's weight.
  • A newborn baby has about one cup of blood in his or her body.
  • White blood cells are the body's primary defense against infection.
  • Granulocytes, a type of white blood cell, roll along blood vessel walls to search and destroy bacteria.
  • Red blood cells carry oxygen to the body's organs and tissue.
  • There are about one billion red blood cells in two to three drops of blood.
  • Red blood cells live about 120 days in the circulatory system.
  • Platelets help blood to clot and give those with leukemia and other cancers a chance to live.
  • Apheresis is a special kind of blood donation that allows a donor to give specific blood components, such as platelets.
  • If all blood donors gave 2 to 4 times a year, it would help prevent all blood shortages.
  • The fear of Blood is called Hemophobia or Hematophobia. Common symptoms of this fear are nausea, fear of dying, sweating, dry mouth, etc. It only takes a realization to overcome it.

Blood Facts in General
  • There is no substitute for human Blood
  • Blood makes up about 7% of your body's weight.
  • An average adult has about 14 to 18 pints of Blood.
  • One standard unit or pint of Blood equals about two cups.
  • Blood carries oxygen and nutrients to all of the body.
  • Blood carries carbon dioxide and other waste products back to the lungs, kidneys and liver for disposal.
  • Blood fights against infection and helps heal wounds.
  • One unit of donated whole Blood is separated into components before use (red Blood cells, white Blood cells, plasma, platelets, etc.)
  • There are four main Blood types: A, B, AB and O.
  • Each Blood type is either Rh positive or negative.
  • There are about one billion red Blood cells in a few drops of whole Blood.
  • Red Blood cells live about 120 days in our bodies.
  • Red Blood cells can be stored under normal conditions for up to 42 days.
  • Frozen red Blood cells can be stored for ten years, and more.
  • Platelets must be used within five days.
  • Platelets are small Blood cells that assist in the process of Blood clotting helping those with leukemia and other cancers, controlling bleeding.
  • Plasma, the fourth major component of Blood, is a sticky, pale yellow fluid mixture of water, protein and salts. It is 95% water. The other 5% is made up of nutrients, proteins and hormones.
  • Blood Plasma constitutes 55% of the volume of human Blood.
  • Plasma helps maintain Blood pressure, carries Blood cells, nutrients, enzymes and hormones, and supplies critical proteins for Blood clotting and immunity.
  • Type AB plasma has been considered as the universal Blood plasma type, and therefore AB plasma is given to patients with any Blood type.
  • Frozen Plasma can be stored for up to one year.
  • Human Blood; red Blood cells, white Blood cells, plasma and platelets are made naturally by the body in the bone marrow.